Andover Canal


The first attempt to introduce navigation to the Test Valley seems to have resulted in powers granted by an Act of Parliament of 1665. This was entitled the "Act for making divers Rivers navigable". This is the same Act that led to the construction of the Itchen Navigation but the powers for the Test seem not to have been exercised.

In 1692, Justices of the Peace issued a Certificate to obtain an Act of Parliament for making the River Test navigable from Stockbridge to Redbridge "for convenience to the County". However, no trace of such an Act has been found. The Justices came to another decision in 1699, this time using their powers under the 1665 Act:

"That Wm Payton of Abbington in the County of Berks millwright be undertaker of and for the making of the River Test Alias Tost navigable from Redbridge to Romsey in this County, and to perfect the Same according to the directions powers and Lymitations of the Statute etc within three years from the date of this order. But to give a Bond of £1000 to Mr Cobb and Mr Brewer to perform this order and not to transgress or abuse the power of the said Act."

Again nothing seems to have been done as a result of this decision - possibly the task was too difficult. In 1711, the Justices appointed J Popham, W Preston and W Wethers Esquires as Commissioners for Navigations. Nothing further happened for more than fifty years.

It was reported that Brindley made a survey for a canal from Salisbury to Redbridge, a small port on the estuary of the River Test about 3 miles north-west of Southampton (see Southampton & Salisbury Canal).

Robert Whitworth made a survey in 1770 for a canal from the Hampshire town of Andover to Redbridge, and quoted £28,982 for a narrow canal and £31,654 for a wider one. A petition was presented to the House of Commons in February 1771 about the need for a canal. Although this was referred to a Committee, it appears that no report on the petition was made. Although meetings took place during 1771 between the supporters of the canal and Robert Whitworth, nothing more is heard of the project after October.

In August 1788, a meeting was called at the Star and Garter Inn in Andover for those interested in reviving the project. As a result, Whitworth was asked make a further survey and he reported in February 1789. His estimate must have been acceptable for things now moved quickly: another petition to the House of Commons was made on 20 March and leave was granted to present a Bill to the House on 6 April. The Bill was presented to the House in early May and after passing all its stages in Parliament, the Act (29 Geo III cap 72) received the Royal Assent on 13 July 1789.

Construction seems to have started soon afterwards and appears to have been completed in about May 1794: a loaded barge was reported to have reached Clatford, two miles from Andover, in January 1794. The waterway was constructed at a cost of £48,000: £35,000 raised as shares and £13,000 by loan.

Joseph Priestley's “Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways of Great Britain”, first published in 1831, states the finished canal was 22½ miles (36.2km) long, with a fall of 176⅓ feet (53.7 metres) by 24 locks.

Bradshaw's “Map of Canals, Navigable Rivers and Railways &c” published in 1830 names the following locks from Andover to Redbridge:

Lock Height (ft-in)* OS Grid Ref
Pill Hill Lock 184-10 SU354439
Kings Lock 175-10 SU355435
Welche's Lock 169-10 SU360426
Westover Lock 163-04 SU361415 ?
Hardimans Lock 157-01 SU372405 ?
Fullerton Lock 149-03 SU380393 ?
Kitecombe Lock 145-01 SU382390 ?
Leckford Lock 139-07 SU375379
White Ship Lock 133-11 SU364366
Stockbridge Lock 127-00 SU360353
Marsh Court Lock 119-11 SU354338
Chalkhill Lock 112-11 SU349312 ?
Horsebridge Lock 105-11 SU347307
Brook Lock 96-05 SU339286 ?
Clapgate Lock 87-05 SU334268 ?
Staff Lock 80-07 SU334258
Timsbury Lock 77-05 SU345244
Romsey Lock 66-11 SU358213
Ashfield Lock 61-05 SU361199
Lee Lock 53-05 SU362186 ?
Groveplace Lock 42-05 SU363171 ?
Barbers Lock 31-08 SU363164?
Nutshalling Lock 24-08 SU362155
Redbridge Lock 15-10 SU363137

* The heights quoted by Bradshaw are based on a level 6ft 10in (2.1m) below the Old Dock Sill in Liverpool Docks which Bradshaw states is "low water at Liverpool". This not the same as the Liverpool datum measured by Ordnance Survey in 1844 which represented Mean Sea Level. Modern Ordnance Survey heights are related to Mean Sea Level measured at Newlyn, Cornwall between 1915-21. The level of the Old Dock Sill is 4ft 6.5in (1.4m) below Newlyn datum.

It should also be borne in mind that early 19th century surveying equipment / technology was not up to the task of accurately transferring a level from Liverpool to Redbridge. However, these levels are listed above as height differences between adjacent locks are likely to have been reasonably accurate.

The locks are said to have been big enough to take boats 65ft (19.8m) long with a beam of 8ft 6in (2.6m), although the Act of Parliament stated they should be a maximum of 60ft by 8ft (18.3m by 2.4m) with a draught of 3.5ft (1.1m).

Andover Wharf was on the west side of the River Anton and the south side of Bridge Street, about quarter of a mile from the Town Hall. From Andover, the canal followed the valley of the River Anton south-east past Upper Clatford and through Goodworth Clatford to its confluence with the River Test at Fullerton where both rivers were crossed by aqueducts. The canal turned south down the Test valley on the east side of the River Test. It passed through the towns of Stockbridge and Romsey to Redbridge, then a small village on the tidal section of the river which the canal entered just above the medieval Red Bridge.

Various proposals were made between 1789 and 1810 to build further waterways in the area, including ideas for a link between the Andover and Basingstoke Canals that would have provided an inland waterway route from London to Southampton. Another idea was for a canal from Wootton Rivers on the Kennet & Avon Canal to Andover. However, the great expense, the shortage of water in an area of chalk hills, and an uncertain amount of trade were problems that probably stopped such schemes proceeding. One associated scheme was the Southampton & Salisbury Canal upon which work did start but was never completed.

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Based on page created 26 January 1999 - updated 17 November 2005. Layout update and other additions 29 November 2017.

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